Counting on you
In 1990, Allegheny County was estimated by the census to be undercounted by a tad more than 3,000 people. May not seem a lot, but it was mostly an undercount of 8% of all African Americans in the county. The white population in the county was estimated to be slightly overcounted.
After the 2000 Census, I think there was a political tussle and the Census didn't report their undercount numbers by county, but something called the Census Monitoring Board came up with estimates of the undercount That commission estimated that Allegheny County was undercounted by around 5,700 folks. It also estimated that the Allegheny County alone lost $116 million between state and federal programs due to that undercount.
So boring but costly.